Nano Technology is mainly referred to the branch of science and engineering that manipulates matter on near atomic scale i.e. 1 to 100 nanometres for generating new materials, devices and systems.
Nano technology devoted to scientific advancement in diverse sectors like energy, materials, and manufacturing, medicine and consumer products. Modern nano technology actually began in 1981 when engineers and scientists use the scanning tunnelling microscope to view and manipulate individual atoms. However, the concept of nanotechnology was founded by the American scientist Richard Feynman in 1959.
Nano technology used to save the world as the nano technological products, procedures and applications contribute to environment protection by lessening greenhouse gases and saving energy and raw materials. This technology is used in humans and in everyday life to acquire positive impact. Additionally, this technology is significant for giving a novel and enhanced tactic to diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
In the US, over 18 billion dollars were invested during 2001 and 2013 through the National Nano Technology Initiative for turning the sector into the driver of economic development and competitiveness.
Benefits of Nano Technology
Nano Technology has numerous benefits. Here are few:
- This technology helps in promoting renewable energies. It enables novel ways for obtaining as well as storing energy.
- Nano technology also makes solar panels cheaper and more effective.
- This technology extends the restrictions of electronics. Nanochips would make it probable to develop very precise circuits at an atomic level.
- Nano technology allows more efficient medication. With the help of this, arteries can be unblocked, damaged genes can be repaired and cells could be attacked selectively and more accurate surgeries could be performed.
- This technology is used to build point-of-care internet connected diagnostic devices such as doctor-on-a-chip diagnostic tool.
- With the use of nano technology, there is an improved visualization of drug interactions.
- Nano technology helps in reducing precious reagents needed for screening potential drugs.
- This technology also aid in understanding diverse chemicals at the molecular level.
- This technology is helpful in improving identification as well as validation of target proteins and drugs level.
- Nano technology is highly helpful to significantly enhance or revolutionize different technology and industries.
Limitations of Nano Technology
Despite having numerous benefits, Nano technology also contains few limitations. Let’s take a look!
- This form of technology can cause various adverse effects on the atmosphere by producing new pollutants and toxins and thereby, threaten the atmosphere.
- Nano technology could have an impact on the job market as the outdated materials and changes in production procedures could demolish jobs.
- This technology can compromise the safety due to the production of smart bullets and nano weapons. The properties included in this technology can facilitate espionage.
Applications of Nano Technology in diverse areas
Nano technology can be significantly applied in different industrial sectors. Some of the applications of this technology in key areas are:
Energy sector – Nano technology is widely used in improving energy approaches to meet the rising energy demand of the world. This technology helps in reducing costs, generating strong wind turbines, and enhancing fuel effectiveness, which aid in saving energy.
Moreover, nano technology also aid in enhancing the effectiveness of fuel production from raw petroleum materials through better catalysis. It enables decreased consumption of fuel in vehicles and power plants via high efficiency combustion. Additionally, this technology can be integrated into solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity more effectively to have inexpensive solar power in the future.
Environment sector – Nano technology can be efficiently applied in detecting and cleaning environmental contaminants in diverse ways. Nano catalysts are available for making chemical reactions more effective and less polluting. Besides this, nano technology can assist in meeting the affordable and clean drinking water via fast and low cost detection of impurities in water.
Furthermore, nano particles developed for cleaning manufacturing water pollutants in ground water through chemical reactions that render harmless pollutants. Nano technology sensors and solutions are used for detecting as well as identifying biological or chemical agents in soil and air with high sensitivity.
Electronics sector – Silicon is replaced with carbon nano tubes to make small, fast and more effective devices and microchips. It also used to make lighter, stronger and more conductive quantum nano wires. However, nano technology has widely contributed to the electronic sector which leads to the generation of more portable system that could manage large amount of data.
Moreover, ultra-high definition displays and TVs are sold which use quantum dots for generating vibrant colours while being more energy productive. Computers are using magnetic random access memory (MRAM) to boot instantly as MRAM is enabled by nanometer scale magnetic tunnel junction.
Flexible electronics developed to use in Smartphone such as semiconductor nano membranes. Additionally, nano technology aid in developing small and fast transistors for modern computing.
Food sector – Nano technology is also used in food sector to transform it. Nano biosensors could be utilized for detecting the presence of pathogens in food. It, thereby, assists in enhancing production of food by growing mechanical and thermal resistance and reducing oxygen transfer in packaged products.
Healthcare sector – The application of nano technology in medicine and health care sector helps in producing more specific solutions for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of different diseases. Moreover, nano particles present in pharmaceutical products helps attack cancer cells selectively without causing any harm to healthy cells. Nano technology enabled better imaging and diagnostic tools to enhance way for more individualized treatment options and better remedial success rates. It also transforms the way healthcare providers treat cancer and ultimately, minimize the toxic effect of chemotherapy. This technology is also studied for the diagnosis and treatment of plaque in arteries or atherosclerosis.
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In conclusion, Nano Technology has bright spots in the future as today’s engineers and scientists are identifying a wide range of ways for making materials at the nano scale. It would aid in acquiring benefit of improved properties like lighter weight, high chemical reactivity, increased control of light spectrum and increased strength. It is required to be aware of the risks of nano technology to prevent any damage to the society.
Want to learn more about nano technology? Then, visit environmental, health and safety issues page on nano.gov.